what is complete blood count test

Complete Blood Count (CBC) is a test where all the cells found in the blood are checked. The most common of which are red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells or cells (WBC) and platelets. The doctor checks all these on the basis of emerging symptoms like exhaustion, unconsciousness or injury. Through this test many problems occur in any person, such as lack of anemia, infection or some other diseases.

(CBC) is used for information about these things:

White blood cell count (WBC, leucocyte): WBC protects the body from infection. If any bacteria are produced in the body, these white blood cells become active and attack bacteria, viruses and other viruses and destroy them. White blood corpuscles are larger than red blood cells. But their number is less than red blood cells. When a person gets infected with bacteria, these cells finish them instantaneously. That is why sometimes white blood cells are examined to see cancer in the body in the disease such that the treatment is affecting this disease.

Some types of white blood cells: These types of cells are in this way, neutrophil, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosnophilus, basophil and immature neutrophil are also a part of this test. Each of these cells plays different roles against the infection in the body. Also, the amount of blood in these cells reveals the body’s immune system. Having too much or too little blood cells in the blood reveals the different types of allergic and infectious drugs such as leukemia.

Red blood cells (RBC) calculation: The function of red blood cells is to spread oxygen to the whole body including lungs. In addition, they also carry carbon dioxide back into the lungs and the lungs leave them out of breath. If there is a shortage of red blood cells in the body, it is called anemia. Oxygen also could not find the whole body due to red blood cells being reduced. At the same time, if the number of red blood cells is high, that condition is called Polisithimia. There may also be a situation where red blood cells stick to one another. If it does, then it stops the small blood vessels. Because of this, the whole body could not get oxygen.

Hematocrit (HST) – Packed Cell Volume, PCV): This test is detected in the blood in the blood test which is surrounded by red blood cells. This rate is given in the amount of blood as a percentage of red blood cells. For example, 38 hematocrit means that 38% of blood is made up of red blood cells. Hematocrit and hemoglobin are two important tests that inform the body of having anemia and pyroctomymia.

Hemoglobin (HGB): Hemoglobin molecules fill red blood cells. They not only carry oxygen in the body, but the red color of the cells is also due to this. Hemoglobin test is tested by hemoglobin in the blood, and this is also the best test for blood to reach the whole body of oxygen.

Red blood cell index: The three types of red blood cells are of three types: Mean quantity of small particles (MCV), (MCHC) Mean canal hemoglobin (MCH), Pisces hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).

Platelet (thrombocyte) calculation: Platelet thrombocytes are the smallest type of blood cells. They play an important role in blood clot formation. If a person is bleeding, the platelets stick together and control the excessive flow of blood by being viscous. If their number is reduced, there is an uncontrolled bleeding problem. But if their number increases, then this leads to the formation of a blood clot in the blood cells. Apart from this, it can also make arteries (atherosclerosis) tough.

Mean quantity of platelet (MPV): Measurement of platelet, measures the average amount (quantity) of platelets. Mean platelet quantity is also used for information about platelet quantities, among other diseases.

Your doctor may advise you to take a blood sample test. But this is not part of regular CBC test. In this test a drop of blood is placed on a slide and a dye is mixed in it. After this the slide is seen through the microscope (microscope). After this, the number of cells in the blood is seen and everyone is seen. If it shows any change in their number and color size in the blood cells, then on the basis of which there is a diagnosis of Lukmiya, Malaria and other diseases.

Why is it necessary to complete blood count?

The complete blood count is done for the following reasons:

  • To detect the causes of symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, fever, injury, or weight loss.
  • To check the lack of blood.
  • To detect this, there is a loss of blood in the haemorrhage.
  • For examination of polycythemia.
  • For checking the infection.
  • For screening of leukemia such as leukemia.
  • To find out how the body is reacting with radiation treatment and some medicines.
  • To find out how abnormal bleeding affects the blood cells and counts of the body.
  • For the screen of lower and higher rates before surgery.
  • To detect fewer or more cells of certain types. This also leads to some other types of conditions, such as having too much Eosinophils and not being known. Its excessive amount indicates the presence of asthma or infection in the body.

The complete blood count can also be done as a regular check-up. General health information is available through blood count tests.

Preparation before the investigation?

If you are thinking that you have to make any special preparation before this investigation, then there is nothing like that. You are always ready for this check and you can do this investigation anytime.

How is it checked?
For this, a health professional will take a sample of your blood:

  • To take blood sample, firstly, a rubber band is tied tightly to the upper part of the hand so that blood flow stops.
  • From this the nerves under the arm grow and it becomes easier to get blood out.
  • The tip of the needle is cleaned with the help of alcohol.
  • The blood is removed by inserting the needle inside the vein. It may also require more than one needle.
  • By adding a tube to this needle, blood is filled in it.
  • After removing the blood, the rubber band is opened by hand.
  • After this, cotton is put in place where the needle has been removed.
  • For some time the blood is kept on the place of extract.

Pain or discomfort

When blood is removed from one of your veins, the rubber band can be tightly tied to it. Although this does not cause pain but it can be a bit tight. There is only one light prick for the needle.

Risks of Full Blood Count (CBC)

There is no such thing as risk after removing the blood from the vein but there are some minor problems that may arise.

  • It may be possible to become screwed on the needle’s place. But it can also be stopped. If the needle is placed after putting some pressure for a while, then this can be avoided.
  • Swelling may also come in the vein after blood sample is taken several times. This type of problem is called fluctuation but it is cured from the hot compress several times a day.
  • Some people may also have problems with no blood clot after needle removal. This is called bleeding disorder. This can also happen due to taking medicines to dilute the blood several times. If someone has a problem like bleeding or blood clots and he is taking medicines for it, then it should be given to the sample taker before removing the blood.


This test provides important information about blood, such as the number of different types of cells in the blood. Especially about red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. The doctor can do this test on any of your symptoms, such as dizziness, weakness or injury. Other tests such as anemia, infection, and many other disorders are also known by this test.

General results

Here are some general rates of complete blood count. This is just a common scale. These results can vary according to different labs. It is possible that the results of the investigation are normal in a lab and not in the second. That is why the doctor always starts the treatment with the results of this investigation according to your health and its history.

The normal rate of checking of a person’s complete blood cells depends on a lot of things, such as age, female or male etc. Your doctor will make a thorough investigation of your CBC for your health checkup. Examples of red blood cells (RBC count), hemoglobin (HGB) and hematocrit (HCT) are the best investigations for the lack of blood in any person. At the same time, the lack of blood and its causes can be detected by the index of red blood cells and blood spots.

To see if white blood cells (WBC, leukocyte) count is okay or not. Whether these cells look like spots or not. The doctor will look at both the numbers of white blood cells (WBC calculation) and (WBC difference). It will be informed that the number of these cells is too high or too little. The doctor will look at both the percentages and counting of all these cells.

Red blood cell (RBC)

Smoking, carbon monoxide, long-term lungs and kidney disease, certain types of cancers, heart disease, alcohol, liver disease, polycythemia, or certain disorders of hemoglobin, are due to the reasons The number of red blood cells in the blood increases. This happens because all these factors bind the oxygen in the blood strictly.

  Apart from this, there are some other reasons which cause red blood cell count due to the lack of water in the body. These reasons may be something like, vomiting, diarrhea, or use of diuretic medicines. When red blood cells grow due to the lack of fluid in the body, this condition is called fake polycythemia.

White blood cells (WBC)

  • Growing blood in white blood cells, infection, swelling, loss of body tissues (heart attack), severe physical or mental stress (such as fever, injury, or surgery), kidney failure, lupus, tuberculosis (TB) There is a disease like rheumatoid arthritis, malnutrition, leukemia and cancer.
  • Apart from these, the use of corticosteroid, low functioning adrenal gland, thyroid gland problems, the use of certain medicines and the removal of the spleen are also some of the reasons which could increase the rate of WBC in the blood.

Due to excessive bleeding, or iron deficiency, some diseases such as cancer or bone marrow, any problem in the problem of platelet can be due to it.
Full Blood Count (CBC), Low Rates

Red blood cell (RBC)
  • The number of red blood cells decreases due to anemia. Anemia, menstruation may also be due to excess bleeding, stomach ulcers, stomach cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, some tumors, addison disease, thalassemia, lead poisoning, sickle-cell disease, or some chemicals and medicines. At the same time, if your spleen has been removed due to any illness, then the rate of RBC may decrease.
  • Deficiency of folic acid or Vitamin B12 can also be anemia. Aspirinisius anemia, is a problem in which Vitamin B12 is absorbed.
  • RBC index value and causes of anemia are detected by blood smears.

White blood cells (WBC)

The number of white blood cells may decrease due to chemotherapy, other medication reactions, aplastic anemia, viral infections, malaria, alcohol, AIDS, lupus, and cushing syndrome.
Apart from these, the number of WBC decreases due to the increased spleen. 

The absence of platelets can also occur during pregnancy. Apart from this, occasional platelets start becoming less or destroyed due to idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) or for some other reasons.
An increased spleen can also be a reason for this.

Factors affecting the investigation:

Some factors that do not cause you to be either able to get tested or you may not be able to get the results of your investigation.

  • If blood samples have been taken in your hands, the plastic band is packed for a long time.
  • Some drugs which use platelet levels to decrease, such as steroids, some antibiotics, thiazid urine, chemotherapy drugs, Quinidine, and Meprobamate.
  • Excessive white blood cells and more triglycerides, due to them, the value of hemoglobin is higher, which can lead to bad consequences.
  • Due to some types of cancer, the spleen increases, resulting in lesser number of white blood cells and platelets (Thrombocytopenia).
  • Normally, the number of RBCs decreases in pregnancy, and there are fewer cases where the number of WBCs is increased.

Also know:

The number of white blood cells can vary from exercise, stress, or smoking to 2,000 WBCs / microliter (mcL).
Children are more likely to have WBC (leukocyte) than adults.

There are some other tests that can be performed for red blood cells:

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR): In the ESR test, it is seen how fast RBC tests sit in the tube. When swelling is due to body infection or cancer, RBC sit down very fast in the test tube below normal. Despite the general scrutiny of CBC, ESR tests can detect swelling disorders in the body.
Reticulocyte count: By this test, detect the number of immature red blood cells in the blood sample. Generally, the number of immature red blood cells is lower than mature red blood cells. But if you have recently had a bleed, or if the number of mature red blood cells is reduced due to some other reason, the number of new red blood cells becomes high in this situation. This test is very important for detecting some type of anemia and its treatment.

Hematocrit measures, depending on the method used and the type of machine.

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